Nimit Theeraleekul B. Eng. (Communication)

(1 October 2011)

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In classical physics, we are familiar with electron which was classified as particle. And in our daily life, its application (which we used to) is a cathode ray tube of TV monitor. But in quantum physics, electron can also act as wave, and an application (which we are not so familiar) is electron microscope.

Now the problem is that no one could understand why and how electron can act as both particle and wave as show in the two-slit interference experiment (a). Armed with a new concept of vacuum medium, it is not difficult to explain its mechanism (b)! Here is a short summary, detail could be found in the article “Completed quantum mechanical theory” present in www.vacuum-mechanics.com .

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** 1)** First let us start
with the diagram fig.1 (a) which is the famous two-slit interference experiment
done by physicists. In conventional interpretation, electron particle **converts**
itself into waves, passing through both slits and then the two part of waves **collapse**
back into a single particle on screen. But the problem is how and why electrons
could do the magic mentioned. This is the crucial problem in quantum mechanics
called **waves collapse interpretation!**

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** **

**Figure 1 Two-slit electrons interference**

** **Note that** **even
though that the interference pattern which occurred on screen comes from stream
of electrons, but it is not the interference between two electrons; instead it
comes from** one single electron **which** interferes
with itself! **Of course, one electron cannot create interference pattern, only a
large amount of them could do. And this** principle **is also
applied to **photon,** and which means that each photon will interfere with itself
forming interference pattern!

** 2)** Before solving the
waves collapse interpretation problem as shown in diagram fig.1 (b), let us first
point out that electron particle act as wave only when **it is moving** (we
have never seen its wave property when it stay at rest), and there is no
explanation about this! The root problem is because the concept of **empty vacuum
space **in quantum mechanics. But, we have learned (from early article “Dark
energy is in front of your eyes”) that** **vacuum space is not empty,
instead it is **vacuum medium space**! Then it is easy to visualize and
understand** **how electrons can do the** magic **as follow**.**

**Figure 2 Matter wave
and particle wave**

**
3)** First it
is easy to understand electron particle wave by using method of analogy with **“surface water waves”** created by a **moving water beetle** as show in the
diagram of fig. 2(a). Normally, we are familiar with ship waves which occurred
behind the moving ship, but for a small moving object such as a water beetle, **the generated waves **occur in front** **around the moving
beetle!

In the same way**,
**when
an electron particle moving through vacuum medium, it will rotate** **while disturbing and creating
standing waves around**
**the
electron**
**as
shown in fig. 2 (b). Note that the diagram shown is a three dimensions which
was cut horizontally in x – z plane to show only the lower half part.

Anyway, there are two different points between beetle wave and electron wave;
first, the former is a 2-dimension wave, while the latter is a 3-dimension
wave. Second, beetle wave is a** vertical transverse **of water surface
wave, while**
electron wave is a rotational transverse wave** in vacuum medium.

** 4)**** **Now return to solving the waves collapse
interpretation problem in diagram fig.1 (b); all the electron **particles** moving
together with their own created **waves.** Some of electrons pass through
slit 1, while others pass through slit 2 randomly. While each electron passes
through slit 1** or** 2, its co-moving waves will pass through both slit 1**
and** 2 at the same time. After passing through both slits, both the waves
will interfere each other while moving toward screen. Because all electron
particles **must move together **with their own created waves** **(they
are co-existence),** **then it is not surprise that all electron particles
are arranged and forming to be interference pattern!

** **

Finally, now we
could understand why and how electron can act as both particle and wave via vacuum
mechanism, i.e. the mechanism of vacuum medium. Also we can explain and solve
the problem of** **waves collapse interpretation** **(which is **the
foundation problem of quantum mechanics**) via scientific method - not a
magic anymore!

** 5) **Someone who familiar
with quantum mechanics would found that it is the most mystic theory
in which **no one could understand** (mentioned by R. Feynman, a Nobel Prize
winner in physics). And it is not surprise that Einstein had said that “**Quantum
mechanics is not a complete theory **even though it is correct”!

Another
point of view comes from David Bohm, a famous physicist in quantum theory, who
said that “Quantum mechanics should be called as** quantum
non-mechanics**”. This is because even through the theory was called “quantum
mechanics” which mean that it should be something as **“mechanism”
**of quantum system, but it seems that there is no such thing which
could regard as system of separate parts working together according to **causal
laws!**

** 6) **Could
this means that **there is no need any mechanism **for quantum mechanics? Of
course, it should not be that, otherwise it is a** **magic**, **not
science!
And by adding our new concept of vacuum mechanics into quantum mechanical
theory, then we can **improve it to a more complete theory** (which should
be called as “quantum vacuum mechanics”). From now on, we will show how to
solve the problem in the conventional theory by using our new **quantum
vacuum mechanics**!

** 7) **First let us look at **Schrödinger equation** which is the most
important equation which was used to find the solution for subatomic particle** **such as electron or
atom. Anyway**,** it could not be done
from fundamental law, but
by “making use of some deep formal analogies between optics and classical
particle mechanics”. The most interesting part is that it is a wave equation, but we
do not know **what the wave is**!

** **Now we know that** **actually particle
wave is vacuum medium wave.** **And we have learnt from CEMT that electromagnetic wave is
also** **vacuum medium wave,** **but **different aspects **of the same one **vacuum medium wave!** So it is easy to
derive Schrödinger wave equation in the same way as was done with electromagnetic
wave, and then what we got is a more rational and understandable equation!

** 8)** Next we will use our **quantum vacuum
mechanics** theory to solve the problem in the conventional quantum mechanics
theory, and the first example is the famous **Heisenberg’s** **uncertainty principle**, which
state that “It is not possible to determine both the position and the momentum
of a particle with unlimited precision”.

Once, R. P. Feynman has said
that **“**the uncertainty principle** protects **quantum
mechanics”!** **Heisenberg recognized that **if it were possible** to
measure the momentum and the position simultaneously with a greater accuracy, **the
quantum mechanics would collapse**. The only question is **why it is
so,** or **what is its mechanism?**

** To
answer** the question, we will start** **with** “wave
packet”** such as photon** **in classical mechanics, which is
a portion of a continuous wave train as shown in the diagram of fig. 3 (a),
then what we got is the relation between length *x* and wave number *k *is
as (1)
below.

** **

∆x. ∆k ~ 1 …. (1), ∆k = (2¶/h) ∆p …. (2), ∆x. ∆p ≥ (2¶/h) ~ h …. (3)

** **

**Figure 3 Mechanism of**** the uncertainty
principle**

** **

If we
reduce ∆*x* then ∆*k* is increase, and in the reverse when we reduce
∆*k* then ∆*x* is increase. This means that we cannot determine both
the position and the wave number of a wave packet with **unlimited
precision! **So this is** **the** ****uncertainty**** ****principle**** in
classical mechanics **which is occurred** **due to** **the** property
of wave packet!**

** **

Now by apply
the
uncertainty relation of wave packet (1) to **electron wave** via **“single-slit
diffraction”**
experiment in the diagram 3 (b). Consider a beam of electrons of speed v
pass
through the slit and create diffraction pattern as shown. By relating the
parameters; v, ∆v, ∆x and Ө. Together with de Broglie wavelength λ = h/p or (2), then what we
get is ∆p.∆x ~ h. (3).

** In
conclusion,** we could see that the **uncertainty measurement of
electron** is due to the co-moving wave packet (of vacuum medium) created by
the moving electrons. And the energy of the wave packet will guide the moving
electrons forming to be the interference pattern. **This is
the mechanism of Heisenberg’s** **uncertainty principle****!**

It is
interesting to note that if there were **no vacuum medium**, then the
moving electrons cannot create electron wave. So the moving electrons will go
straight pass though the slit direct to screen and pile up as a smooth curve
(due to statistical randomness, not interference) as shown at the top of the
diagram 3 (b). So in principle, **we can make a measurement of
electron with unlimited precision!**

** 9)**** **The second example is about the
problem with **Bohr classical model** of hydrogen atom, which we are
familiar and shown in diagram fig.4 (a). According to the model, electron is
circulating around the center proton at Bohr radius for the stationary state,
but it **was criticized** that atom is not
stable because electron would** **radiate energy** **and spirals into the
nucleus!

** In quantum mechanics,** what we got is a **better model** of hydrogen atom as
shown in diagram 4 (b). It has shown the probability location of the electron
around the proton nucleus for the ground state in atom, which was calculated
using**
**Schrödinger
equation**.
**And
in diagram 4 (c) shown the radial probability density which is maximum** **where the radius *r*
equal to Bohr radius. Anyway,** **even the model in
quantum mechanics, there is still no** **explanation** why electron can stay separate from
the proton nucleus, **and
it still depends on Bohr assumption of the stationary state!

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**Figure 4**** ****Hydrogen atom models**

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** **Armed with **quantum vacuum
mechanics, **we
could use the model shown in diagram 4(d) for explanation why** “**electron can stay
separate from the proton nucleus and having the probability density” as in 4(a)
and 4(b). The explanation is that normally electron can **move freely** (even at absolute
zero degree temperature) in “Bohr shell”** **because it is the place where** **the **Coulomb attraction
force **(between
electron and proton) **equal
to the repelling force** of the vacuum medium** **in between!

** **

Finally we also knew
that there is always**
a small vibration in any atom**, except at absolute zero degree temperature!
So any electron in any atom could not stay only within Bohr shell, instead it
has the probability to move to other location out of Bohr shell when time goes
on. Of course, the probability density of electrons** **is according to wave
mechanics. So what we got now is a better explanation for hydrogen atom model which
is**
more realistic **and
**understandable!**

** **

** 10)**** **The last example is the hot issue (problem)
of **quantum entanglement** or correlation, in which one electron can **affect**
another electron simultaneously, no matter how far they are separated. And it
was claimed that this is the nature of the conventional quantum mechanics, but
the problem is that they do not know how electron can do the** **magic!

Armed with our
quantum vacuum, it is easy to show that this because of our **ignorance **in the **mechanism** of quantum
mechanics, which is then, give us with **misinterpretation** in the theory as
follow.

First, historically,
quantum entanglement was criticized by Einstein, in which he called it as **a spooky action at a
distance**!
And this give rise to a debate between Einstein and Neil Bohr (a famous quantum
physicist), via a thought-experiment on a two-particle system, called EPR
paradox.

Second, because the
conventional interpretation of quantum mechanics, in which measurement with one
particle can affect the far away particle simultaneously, for Einstein this due
to the incompleteness of the theory! In Einstein opinion, there should
have something (attribute) hidden, i.e.** hidden variable**, in which we
cannot observe, that **responsible** for the mentioned “affect”.

Third, there are
many experiments which tried to prove **hidden** **variable** concept by using a mathematical
formula called **Bell
inequality**.
Anyway, most of the results seem to agree with quantum mechanics, not** **hidden variable. The
reason is because the proposed hidden variable is not related to the property
of the electron in the experiment!

Finally, based on
the existence of vacuum medium in which electron wave was created by a rotating
moving electron disturbs the surrounding vacuum medium! And by **using electron wave
as the hidden-variable** mentioned, we would then found that the experimental
result must agree with quantum mechanics. The reason is because what we have
used as the hidden-variable is the **mechanism of quantum mechanics**, isn’t?

……………………………….

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